The habits and Customs of peoples of the North
“There Dolgans use this custom…”
Known Dolgan poetess of Okdo Aksenova belong to the following lines: “There are Dolgans use the custom to share the first prey. Remember, boy!” In former times the Dolgans always gave part of the wild reindeer meat and fish relatives and neighbors. But the furs section were not subject. She was valuable. goods, in exchange for which the visiting traders could get guns, gunpowder, tea, flour, sugar.
Trap foxes in Siberia and in the far North they are often called “jaws” was the personal property of each hunter. Check out to pasture and pick up trapped animals in them those only, to whom these traps belonged. There was another important rule related to Arctic Fox hunting. If you have decided to set their traps to the South of those that put another hunter, you don’t need his permission. But if you want to put North of the mouth of other people’s traps, it is necessary to obtain the consent of their owner. Why is there such a custom? Everything is explained very simply: the foxes come to the land of Dolgans from the North, and therefore the hunter, whose traps are to the North, has a greater chance of success.
Little lady of the big plague
The Dolgans until the nineteenth century retained the remnants of matriarchy, although the expense of kinship were in the male line. Women maintained fire, “fed” him; in charge of all were the homemade shrines. In the winter a few Dolgan families, as a rule, joined and built a big tent of sloping wooden boards, lined for warmth turf. The inhabitants of winter house chosen mistress. Often it was an old, bent from hard work woman. The word little lady was the law for all, including for the proud and warlike Dolgan men.
Crow arrives on North one of the first, in April, when there is snow and there are frosts. By crying, she awakens nature and, it seems, brings to life itself. That’s probably why Khanty and Mansi believe this bird is the patroness of women and children, and I devote a special holiday.
The bear holiday
This is the most favorite holiday of the Khanty and the Mansi. The bear is a son of the Supreme deity Torum, however he is the son of the woman of the progenitor and the brother of her children, so the Khanty and Mansi perceive him as a brother. And finally, he is the personification of Supreme justice, the master of taiga. Every successful bear hunt is accompanied by a holiday where people try to absolve themselves of blame for his murder and perform the rites, which should lead to the well-being of all participants. The skin of the bear was turned, his head and feet were adorned with rings, ribbons, scarves and tucked in the front corner of the house in a so-called sacrificial posture, with the head placed between the outstretched forepaws. Then gave performances in masks. In the first half of the night, be sure to perform dances, dedicated to the main gods. Of particular significance was the middle of the night and its second half, when I ate the bear meat, escorted the soul of a bear at the sky, wondering about the upcoming hunt.
Interesting custom connected with the worship of deer, existed in ancient times among the Selkups. In accordance with a long tradition, it was believed that a shaman’s tambourine deer, on which the mediator between people and spirits traveled to the sky. However, before hitting the road, the shaman was supposed to “revive” the tambourine. This ritual was carried out in the spring, when the birds came. Time for the ceremony was chosen. Selkups thought birds their families and themselves often called eagle grouse or people. Ceremony of revival tambourine lasted ten days. It was the culmination of the achievement of the shaman of the earth, “where seven suns shines, where the stone takes to the sky”. Portraying their stay in this magical country, the shaman showed the audience that he was very hot that his water pot. Completed the rite of revitalization tambourine universal feast and feeding the idols, wooden figures which Selkups considered the embodiment of their ancestors.
One of the main festivals of the Samoyedic peoples was linked with the end of the polar night. It was celebrated in late January or early February, when the winter sun after a long absence reappeared on the horizon. Very solemnly celebrated this holiday is the northernmost of the Samoyeds — the Nganasans living far beyond the Arctic circle. For the holiday put a special “clean tent”, which for several days continuously camel shaman. At the time, while shamanic drum sounded, the young people were gathered near a “clean plague”, performed ancient dances, played the games. It was believed that all these actions should ensure good luck in the coming year. Sometimes the celebration took place in a different way. Instead of “clean the plague” constructed “stone gate”. They were a sort of tunnel. Three days near the tunnel continued the ritual of the shaman, and then he followed him all the inhabitants of the camp three times passed through the stone gates.
Customs and festivals of the Evenks
The custom of hospitality known to all peoples of the world. Strictly enforced it and Evenks. Many Evenk families accounted for a significant part of the year to roam the forest in isolation from other families, so the arrival of the guests has always been a holiday. The guests were given gifts, seated in a place of honor in the tent (behind the fireplace, opposite the entrance), were treated to the most delicious food, such as finely chopped meat bear, seasoned roasted bear fat. In the warm season in honor of the guests were dancing. Danced in the meadow, not far from the camp. Traditional Evenk dances were extremely temperamental. Took part in them all the inhabitants of the camps — from small to large.
After abundant food, sharing stories, dancing, when the day was late afternoon, any of the guests or the owners started a slow story. The narrator was talking, then switched to singing, and the audience in unison repeat the most important words. The heroes of the story could be people, animals, powerful spirits. For example, such as “the old Man of Amak” that “are the threads of our lives”, or the celestial hunter Manga, winning the magic of moose Bugadi and restored to the people stolen by moose in the sun…
They appreciated the ability to not only fight, but to negotiate for peace. First squad led by the shaman approached the enemy camp and warned a loud cry of his coming. The enemy sent envoys to two older women. The straps of their boots (fur boots) must be unleashed. It’s a sign that negotiators were willing to negotiate. Older women may enter into a conversation, older women, representing the hostile side. Shaman defiantly rejected the proposal and ordered to prepare for combat. Then the defender sent two elderly men untied the straps of the boots. Began new negotiations, which now took place among the oldest men. However, this time the agreement is reached: the shaman sends envoys back. Then to the camp of the attackers shaman arrives from the defending camp. Both shaman I sit back to each other, on either side of those thorns that are stuck in the ground criss-cross swords, and speak directly. It ends the conversation by making peace. The ceremony, which included a multi-stage negotiations, was intended to create people have a certain mental attitude, to show everyone how difficult it is to make peace and how important it is to protect it in the future.